Showing posts from March 29, 2020


Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Briefly Explain Bloomfield Methodology (Linguistics)

An American linguist Leonard Bloomfield who led the development of structural linguistics during 1930s was born in 1887. He is especially known for his book Language (1933) describing the state of art of linguistics at its time. The mechanism of Bloomfield was closely related to behaviourism in psychology, that is human conduct is totally predictable. Even speech must be explained by the external conditions surrounding its productions. This theory was given a new status in structural approach. This led to a higher degree of precision in the grammatical description of language. For e.g. English adjective category can be more precisely defined as: a word which can stand between the definite article ‘the’ and a noun and which never takes –s in the plural. Therefore, the American linguistics followed certain order of the levels of grammatical description as stated:- (a)     Phonemics (b)    Morphemic (c)     Syntax (d)    Discourse The corpus consists of speech, so as the

Main Ideas in Ronald Barthes essay ‘The Death of the Author’

Feminism and Feminist Theory                  Deconstruction Symbolism and Imagery in The Portrait of Lady Character Sketch of Eliza Doolittle Oedipus Complex in Sons and Lovers History of English Language Ronald Barthes an intellectual figure was thoroughly steeped in controversies throughout his life. One of such is found in his declaration on the place of author in 1968 in a literary text The Death of the Author . For many reasons the essay remains one of the most sensational in the history of literary theorizing. Expectedly, his contribution of a wide range of field- from psychoanalysis to linguistics to structuralism to deconstruction and Marxism exerts a great deal of influence on the position he takes in the essay. Generally the term ‘author’ means, someone who writes a book . But Ronald Barthes essay, The Death of the Author however demonstrates that,             An author is not simply a ‘person’ but a socially and historically constituted subject . Through this wor

Define Langue and Parole in Linguistics

Structuralism in Language Structuralism appears to make possible the establishment of autonomous and objective human sciences, because it provides them with their own independent and objective fields of study. As such, structuralism in linguistics means a new approach to the facts already known. The structural mode of linguistics introduces us to the langue and parole . Langue according to Saussure is the totality of a language, deducible from an examination of the memories of all the language users, that is,             Langue is the system or structure of a language . In other words, we can say, it is a language structure which consists of vocabulary, principles of construction, idioms, rules of pronunciation etc. According to Saussure,             Langue is both a social product of the faculty of speech and a collection of necessary conventions that have been adopted by a social body to permit individuals to exercise that faculty. Therefore, langue is a corporate so


New Historicism is a theory applied to literature that suggests literature must be studied and interpreted within the context of both the history of the author and history of the critic. This started in 1980s taking over the then known and widely appreciated phenomena of New Criticism. It developed its roots; with its advancement has greatly influenced the way in which literature is looked at and became a prominent study tool in 1990s. Unlike previous historical criticism, which limited it to simply demonstrating how a work was reflective of its time, New Historicism evaluates how the work is influenced by the time in which it was produced. It also examines the social sphere in which the author moved the psychological background of the author, the books and theories that may have influenced the author and other factors which influence the work of art. All work is biased. The term New Historicism was coined by Stephen Greenblatt , a critic and English professor at the University


Postmodernism is a complicated term or set of ideas, one that has emerged as an area of academic study since the late 1950s. Modernism was the period between 1910 and 1930 when the famous modernists like Woolf, Joyce, Eliot, Pound etc gave their contributions. According to American Heritage Dictionary,  Postmodernism is,             Of or relating to art, architecture or literature that reacts against earlier modernist principles, or by reintroducing traditional or class elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremes. It is so architecturally interesting…with its post-modern wooden booths and sculptural clock. Postmodernism is a concept that appears in a wide variety of disciplines including art, architecture, music, film, literature, sociology, communication, fashion and technology. Modernism was primarily concerned with principles such as identity, unity, authority and certainty. And, postmodernism is often associated with difference, plurality,