Showing posts from April 5, 2020


Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Character Sketch of MARLOW in Heart of Darkness

Kurtz J oseph Conrad created his narrator Charles Marlow to establish him as a device that would provide both form and shape for his novels. In the present novel Heart of Darkness he is one of the two narrators. The first one only introduces Marlow to us and goes into the background, thereby, speaks only at long intervals when Marlow stops narration or when he is indulged in some philosophical brooding. It is an established and recorded fact that Heart of Darkness is the record of Conrad’s own visit to Congo. It may therefore, be said that Marlow plays the part in the novel which Conrad played in actual journey. He serves as a mirror through which Conrad examines the savage exploitation of Congo natives and the degradation of Mr. Kurtz. In fact Marlow is another self of Conrad though there are some very vital differences between the two persons.              Marlow moralizes in a sense in which Conrad decidedly does not . In the very opening of the novel, the first narrat

Theme, Character, Plot, Symbols and Imagery in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness

Treatment of Women Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) wrote Heart of Darkness as his own experience of life, particularly experience gained during his visit to Congo in 1890. The autobiographical novel represents the most crucial aspects of the modern society- the fear and disillusionment of the modern western man in the world. The novel deals with multiple themes. Heart of Darkness is not without historical perspective. For Conrad, the expedition to the Congo became a journey within a journey through darkness into the self.   In 1889, the Congo was of universal interest because of various economic speculations. Conrad projects this tendency through the description of expedition. It is through fictitious character Marlow, he speaks to readers. It may therefore be said that like ‘Nelly Dean in Wuthering Heights’ Marlow is another self of Conrad through which he examines the savage exploitation of Congo natives. The most prominent theme is theme of imperialism. Conrad gives a truthful

Explain ‘The Horror! The Horror!’ In Heart of Darkness

Kurtz Narrative mode The above mentioned words are spoken by Kurtz in Joseph Conrad’s novel Heart of Darkness .  Kurtz was seriously ill, thus, Marlow persuades him to return to England (by steamer) as he wants Kurtz to be free from the natives of Congo. During his period of illness, he develops strong relationship with Marlow. He handed a packet of papers to Marlow and asks to keep them safely. Then Mr. Kurtz speaks of death, as if he had become aware that his end was approaching. One evening, Marlow noticed an expression of mingled pride, power, terror and despair on Mr. Kurtz’s face. Many passions were struggling with one another in his soul when he cried out these words and dies.                         The horror! The horror!   It appears that just before his death Kurtz pronounces a judgement upon the life, actions, adventures, humankind and imperialism which his soul has gone through on this earth. He also points out his fate which looks profoundly affected by the

Justify the Title ‘Heart of Darkness’ by Joseph Conrad

Kurtz         Marlow Narrative mode Colonialism History of English language Justify (or significance of) the title ‘Heart of Darkness’ by Joseph Conrad.                              OR ‘Heart of Darkness’ is essentially a story of darkness at different levels. Give your opinion.                                     Joseph Conrad’s novel Heart of Darkness is quite significant and meaningful so far as its title is concerned. It is certainly the story of darkness at different levels- physical, intellectual, moral, spiritual, subconscious etc. It is the story of dark personality like Mr.Kurtz and diabolical possessions. The title basically refers to the dark African continent. Literally it means the inmost region of the territory which was in those days still in the process of being explored and the inhabitants still led a primitive life. By Conrad’s time many parts of Africa had been explored and depicted on the map; even then Africa was still known as the Dark Continent

Briefly Explain Indo-Anglian Literature

Diversification of Indian English Literature It is found that those Indians trying to accomplish creative self expression through English as the medium have given rise to ‘ Indo-Anglian Literature ’. It is said that J.H.Cousins coined the term ‘Indo Anglian Literature’ in 1883 and later it was given currency by Srinivasa Iyengar, the pioneer in this field in 1943.  The advantage with ‘Indo-Anglian’ is that it can be used both as an adjective and as substantive, but Indo-Englishman would be beyond our imagination.  It will not sound suitable and Anglo–Indian has an obvious ethnic connotation in Indian life and cannot therefore be used in another context like literature. Thus ‘Indo-Anglian’ is reasonably handy and descriptive and serves our purpose well enough owing to its acceptability. C.R. Reddy points out that Indo-Anglian literature is as Indian as other languages of India. Among its writers Raja Rao, Mulk Raj Anand, R.K. Narayan, Bhabani Bhattacharya, K.A. Abbas, Khushwant Si

Indo-English Literature

Diversification of Indian English Literature Coming to Indo-English Literature , it is observed that the classical works of Indian other languages getting translated into English are termed as Indo-English Literature.  The term was first coined by John B. Alphonso Karkala in 1970 to mean translated literature produced by Indian in English.  Rabindranath Tagore, a man with versatile talents wrote primarily in Bengali. He translated many of his poems and plays into English, often changing, telescoping and transforming the originals.  This he attempted as an escape from the exhaustion of Bengali Literature, thus becoming a great pioneer of Indo-English Literature.  Among his works Gitanjali was the first to be translated and achieved the phenomenal success.  Tagore’s ‘Chitra’ a loveliest drama stand apart from his other plays.  Whereas, the imaginative perfection is made manifest in his superb play, ‘ The Post Office’ .  Words fail to sum up the exquisite beauty of this unequalled pla

Briefly Explain Anglo-Indian Literature

Diversification of Indian English Literature Anglo-Indian Literature refers to the writing of English-men who are inspired by Indian motifs and by Indian spirit.   It also refers to the race, a microscopic minority in India, the result of cross-fertilization of the two fruitful cultures.   The Anglo Indian Literature is said to be born in 1783, the year of arrival in India of Sir William Jones , the great Orientalist, who became the first Anglo-Indian poet.   There is a large body of writing on Indian life and society, history etc by Englishmen including bureaucrats and missionaries.   All these Anglo-Indian writers were critical, in most cases of India and Indians.     In those times, it was from these works that the legislators and the narrow section of the British people made up public opinion and acquired their image of India.   They preferred the evidence for India’s depravity and backwardness.   The prejudiced views of these Anglo-Indian writers helped to create a climate in

Diversification Of Indian English Literature

Indo-Anglian        Indo-English        Anglo-Indian The colonial encounter beginning in the early nineteenth century is an important factor in the formation of Indian English Literature, an encounter of conflict as well as of awareness. However, it also grew out of an Indian ethos and is responsive to the changing conceptions of Indian nationalism and self-interest. The plurality of Indian English Literature is the result of the clash of the local and the global. With the introduction of English in India, there was a spurt of translations from Indian Classics to English. Besides, there was a creative effort taken by indigenous people. Prior to these, non-Indian writers also contributed by writing about India in the English language. As such, Indian English Literature is diversified into three forms- Anglo-Indian Literature, Indo-English Literature and Indo-Anglian Literature Literature is a word very common in use.   It handles the symbolic medium of language and is not only the m

Stylistic Explanation of John Masefield’s Poem BEAUTY

John Masefield (1878-1967) born at Led bury in Hertfordshire became Poet Laureate in 1930. He received the Order of Merit in 1934. A born story-teller, Masefield also did much to restore realism to contemporary English poetry. In both narrative and lyrical poems his vitality and simple style have a definite appeal. Beauty is one of the most romantic poems written by John Masefield .             I have seen dawn and sunset on moors and windy hills…             …and eyes, and the dear red curve of her lips. The poem centers on three types of beauty- first is the natural beauty, second is the musical beauty and the third is the beauty of a lady (poet’s beloved).   Beauty encompasses variety of emotions expressed by the poet using variety of techniques including simile, metaphors and onomatopoeia. He employs simile in the second line, Coming in …of Spain . Here, the poet makes the readers comprehend the great happiness and satisfaction he feels with the arrival of his belov