Showing posts from March 22, 2020


Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Analyse the Grounds on which P.B.SHELLEY Defends Poetry

Plato                  Aristotle Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822) was born in Sussex and educated at Eton and Oxford. During his lifetime Shelley’s opinions obscured his powers as a poet. Even to Scott, who with all his Tory prejudices was liberal enough in views on literature, he was simply, that atheist Shelley. After his death his reputation rose rapidly and by the middle of nineteenth century his position was assured. His work, A Defence of Poetry was published in 1840. The book is a strong exposition of the romantic point of view. It was a reply to the attack made by his contemporary Peacock. P.B.Shelley, a great romantic poet and critic defends poetry by claiming that the poet creates human values and imagines the form that shape the social and cultural order. Unlike Peacock, for Shelley each poetic mind recreates its own private universe and poets. He says himself,             Poets are the hierophants of an un-apprehended inspiration: the mirrors of the gigantic shad

Difference Between SHELLEY and PLATO in Defense for Poetry

Shelley              Aristotle Plato is the first major figure in the history of western philosophy. He is an idealist, moralist and a rationalist. He locates reality in what he calls ideas (gods) or forms rather than world of appearance that we locate with our senses. Plato believes in the idea that is form which itself is formless but it is fixed. Idea is archetype and always remains the same. Reality can’t be found in the world of appearance but in the ideal world. According to Plato, the world that we perceive around us is the world of imitation or shadows of ideas or ideal world. When a post imitates the world his creation obviously is twice removed from reality. Poets do not use their own rationality; they are inspired by the divine inspiration, so they are only forced to use their emotion. Furthermore, Plato stressed that the poets possess the madness and are not in control of them when they write. They cannot be good teachers. Poet’s creation caters to the emotion and passi

Short Note on RASA and DHVANI

Colonialism History of English Language Doctor Faustus The word Rasa literally means taste, flavour, juice etc. Taking another aspect it is also used to denote the essence of poetry. It signifies the peculiar experience that poetry affords us. The Rasa School stresses this experimental or subjective side of poetic meaning. Bhattanayaka asserted that rasa affects the spectator and developed the theory further by saying that poetic language is different from ordinary language. He imposed on rasa theory a system of theology and philosophy. Rasas (poetic emotions) are invariably pleasurable unlike some natural emotions like sorrow, fear and disgust which are painful. The nature of rasa which is the same as aesthetic experience is alaukika (not of this world) that is transcending the boundaries of worldly experience involving willing suspension of disbelief, negative capability, aesthetic distance and detachment. It is realized when an emotion is awakened in the mind in such a manner


Colonialism Feminism and Feminist Theory Gynocriticism is the historical study of women writers as a distinct literary tradition . Elaine Showalter coined the term in her essay Toward a Feminist Poetics . It refers to a criticism that constructs,             A female framework for the analysis of women’s literature to develop new models based on the study of female experience, rather than to adopt male models and theories. Gynocriticism is the study of feminist literature written by female writers inclusive of the interrogation of female authorship, images, the feminine experience and ideology and the history and development of the female literary tradition. According to Showalter, literary history has seen three distinct phases of gynocriticism. Until the twentieth century, the female literature tradition was constructed of images and values of the idealized ‘feminine’ constructed from the patriarchal oppression that sought to identify the woman as ‘Other’. During the 20 th

Theatre of the Absurd and Samuel Beckett’s WAITING FOR GODOT

One of the most significant developments in the English Theatre in the Modern Age came to be called as The Theatre of the Absurd .  Gorky’s Lower Depths was the inspiration for this kind of play. Some of the playwrights who adopted this method are Eugene Ionesco, Jean Genet, Arthur Adamou, Edward Albee and Samuel Beckett. The absurdist playwrights deal with purposelessness of life and human existence. Their plays seek to explore the spiritual loneliness, complete isolation and anxiety of the downs and outs of a society, of those who are social failures and social outcasts. Oliver I.William remarks, The absurdist playwrights believe that our existence is absurd because we have been without asking to be been, we die without seeking to die…there ultimately comes a sense of helplessness and impotence, something which the plays of Beckett also deal with. The Absurd Theatre came under the influence of existentialism- a school of thought which believes in the absurdity of the universe.

Aristotle's ‘Pleasure Proper To Tragedy’

Shelley English as a Global Language New Criticism A ristotle (384-322BC) the student of famous educationist and theoretician Plato differed from his master as he was more inclined in describing and classifying things as they were. However, he followed Plato in defining poetry as ‘ mimesis’ but in a different way. He regarded mimesis as a natural healthy impulse. The proposal for tragedy according to Aristotle was unity of action, place and time which became famous later as the three unities. Another contribution he did in the field was the notion of Catharsis . Talking about pleasure in his book Poetics Aristotle says,              They are of three types. First, when it comes from pity and fear through imitation. Secondly, pleasure is said to be derived from completeness and wholeness of action in a plot. In the third, pleasure is said to be a result of music and spectacular effects. However, every kind of pleasure is not found in tragedy. It affords only those which is p

Justification of the Title LOOK BACK IN ANGER

John Osborne’s plays represent the ‘ordinary’ or ‘real’ life on stage. The most famous of them are- The Entertainer, Epitaph for George Dillon, Plays for England, Inadmissible Evidence and Look Back in Anger. All his plays demand consideration of the social, economic, political and cultural changes that Britain underwent in the period immediately after the Second World War. Look Back in Anger was inspired by his own life. Osborne himself admitted saying that the marriage ceremony in the play was, A fairly accurate description of our wedding . By just considering the title Look Back in Anger, it is often read as though like a command to perform a particular action. However, just by title it is not clear that injunction made is referred towards whom- whether to character, play or audience. Considering another aspect, the title can be taken in a descriptive way as telling us what the play actually does. Probably, there is another way of dividing it in two themes- the action of ‘lo

Analyse the Relevance of ‘THE PLAYBOY OF WESTERN WORLD’ Today.

Christy Mohan                  Theme John Millington Synge (1871-1909) was a born poet and dramatist. It was in 1898 he came to Aran Islands on the advice of Yeats. His plays deal with the life and living of the people of these islands. Daniel Corkery an eminent critic remarks,     His ideas of literature were an imaginative treatment of the profound and common interest of life so that exaltation might result. J.M.Synge wrote several plays like The Aran Islands, The Tinkers Wedding, Riders to the Sea, The Playboy of the Western World, In the Shadow of the Glen etc. The Playboy of the Western World, a highly controversial play exposed the middle-class audience to a different portrayal of Irish countryside life as opposed to the traditional idyllic image they were accustomed to. Synge strongly employs the element of satire in his play to inject humour, creating a light-hearted tragic-comedy as the play’s lack of morals would have offended the audience. At a first glance Playbo