Showing posts from 2022


Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Socialization

G.H.Mead's Theory of Socialization Effectiveness of Curriculum Transaction Study Survey, Descriptive Reserach Census Survey Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) developed the theory of socialization in the early 20 th cen. Since personality is the outcome of socialization, Freud’s theory of socialization associate, structure and development of personality with human psychological needs. According to Freud, the human mind has three main regions- Consciousness, Pre-consciousness and Unconsciousness . The conscious region of mind relates the individual with present events and activities in life. Preconscious region stores up memories called as mind which can easily be recalled. For eg: If we say office, home, school etc we call an incident or series of incidents related to that. The unconscious region is the store house of all repressed desires and bitter experiences which come to the level of conscious either in disguised form or in psychoanalysis. Moreover, unconscious is the predominant

G.H.Mead’s Theory of Socialization

  Sigmund freud's Theory of Socialization Effectiveness of Curriculum Transaction Census Survey, Descriptive Research George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) an eminent figure in the early 20 th century developed a theory of social behaviourism (socialization) to explain how social experience develops an individual’s personality. One of his most influential theories was emergence of mind and self from the communication process among individuals in society. According to Mead, mind is not a substance located in some transcendent realm, nor it is merely a series of events that takes place within human. Rather, emergence of mind is contingent upon the interaction between the individual and the society by symbols or language. That is, mind arises out of social act of communication. Further, Mead emphasises the development of self, the part of an individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image. He clarified three stages in the development of self-   play , game and gener

To Ensure Effectiveness of Curriculum Transaction in Classroom

Various means of curriculum transaction in classroom Education vs Indoctrination Education as a Discipline Explain Stream of Consciousness The effectiveness of curriculum transaction in classroom lies in meeting the needs and expectation of learners that keeps changing as time passes. There are various ways to ensure this:- 1)       Self-Observation : Self-observation in the classroom is a way for teachers to look back on their teaching strategies to analyse how and why they were teaching in a certain way and how their student responded. This can be done by audio or video recording of their own teaching in classroom. The self-observation of this recording can offer teachers a critical opportunity to see what worked and what failed in their classroom and in which area they need improvement. 2)       Observation of Others : Observing others teaching is another way to make our teaching more effective. This is a way to analyse and evaluate one’s own teaching practices. Teachers effecti

Various Means of Curriculum Transaction in Classroom

To Ensure Effectiveness of Curriculum Transaction in Classroom Education as a Discipline Education vs Indoctrination Census Survey, Descriptive Research In education, curriculum means a pre-planned structure for learning in classroom which contains assumptions about the purpose of education in our society. Etymologically, the word ‘Curriculum’ comes from Latin which means ‘a racecourse’. Therefore, curriculum is any path or course of study to be undertaken by an educational institution. Regarding definition, we find several definitions have been proposed by curriculum specialists. According to objectivists’ perspective, curriculum comprises relatively fixed and pre-determined knowledge that need to be imparted to the learners in educational institution. On the contrary, constructivists hold the view that curriculum is a set of learning events and activities through which students and teachers jointly negotiate content and meaning. However, Curriculum either considered of objectivis

Explain Stream of Consciousness

  Education vs Indoctrination Colonialism in English Literature In his research work The Principles of Psychology (1890) , William James coined a phrase Stream of consciousness to describe the flow of thoughts of the waking mind. According to him, the intervention of time cannot break the continuity of consciousness. It flows like a stream of river. The writers adopting this technique relate all mental experience of their characters be they pleasant or unpleasant, trivial or significance without any restrain. In order to depict the fleeting thoughts of the mind the novelists commonly uses the narrative techniques of ‘interior monologue’, where the individual thought processes of a character associated to his/her actions are portrayed in the form of a monologue that addresses the character itself. As such, it is different from the ‘dramatic monologue’ where the speaker addresses the audience. Other devices used by the novelist are epiphanies, dreams, free association of ideas, symbol

Concern and Problems Regarding Privatization of Education

  Factors leading to growth of Private Institutions in Education Concept of Privatization in Indian Education System To ensure effectiveness of curriculum transaction in classroom Although privatization has paced the growth in educational system as discussed in previous articles, there are few concerns which should not be overlooked. They are:- 1)       Under representation of the weaker sections : Education should be holistic in nature. But the marginalized sections still struggle for entry in private institutions due to high fee structure. Thus, education once again becomes a privilege to be enjoyed by the elite class. 2)       Quality of Education; It is general notion that private schools /colleges provide quality education when compared to government schools/colleges. However, when it comes for higher and professional education the government run centres of excellence like IIT’s, IIM’s, AIIM etc are still the first choice of students. 3)       Commercialization of Education

Factors Leading to Growth of Private Institutions in Education

  Concern and Problems regarding Privatization of Education Concept of Privatization in Indian Education System The rapid growth of private institutions in Education is taking place due to following factors:- 1)       Liberalization: Due to liberalization many private institutions have come up on a large scale. Many privately owned educational bodies are semi-aided by the government, this encourages their participation. 2)       Changing Social Needs: As discussed in the previous article, due to globalization the needs of the people have changed which is not fulfilled by studying in government schools/universities. As such they opt for private institutions. 3)       Quality of Education: Privatization of education boosted mainly due to higher quality of education it provides. Good learning and teaching facilities activate students’ interest towards studies. Teachers work hard owing to job insecurity. Ultimately, the quality of education improves; hence, more and more students o

Concept of Privatization in Indian Education System

Factors leading to growth of Private Institutions in Education Concern and Problems regarding Privatization of Education Orthodox School's Views of Knowledge Overview of History of English Language The concept of privatization in Indian Education System means running the institute without taking financial subsidy from the government. However, they are required to take recognition from the concerned authority of the government and have to be affiliated to a board- CBSE, ICSE, UGC, NCTE, INC, PCI etc established by the government. The ownership of these educational institutions involve:- 1)     Individual Owner and Trusts : Owned either by wealthy people of society or trusts created by corporate houses. 2)       NGO’s : EX-The Aziz-Premji Foundation, Akshara etc. 3)       Religious Bodies : The Christian Missionaries, Arya Samaj, Ram Krishna Mission, Khalsa Group etc. 4)       Corporate Houses : Tata, Birla, Reliance group etc. Privatization of education in India introduced

Relevance of Aurobindo’s Concept of Education in Present Times

  Aurobindo's concept of education Gandhiji's concept of education Orthodox school's views of knowledge Sri Aurobindo’s concept of education was student oriented which recommends focussing on ‘Integral Education’ emphasizing both the aspects ‘matter and spirit’. As such it was not for a particular time but is relevant to the present times also.   His educational theory is relevant in respect of all round development of the child, compulsory education till 14yrs, lifelong and continuing education, vocational education, creativity, study of science and technology, literature etc. His main contribution relevant today is to prepare child for future life. Moreover, he gave importance to national integration, international integration, value education, formal and non-formal programs in rural and un-organised sector. Further, Sri Aurobindo suggested that the teacher should not only teach but suggest and organize the work, show children direction to responsibility and help them t

Relevance of Gandhi’s Concept of Education to Present Times

  Aurobindo's concept of education Gandhi's concept of education Analyse Education as a Discipline Pramana as a valid source of knowledge Relevance of Aurobindo's concept of education in present times Gandhiji’s perception towards concept of education was not limited for a particular period of time but is relevant in the present times. He excelled in understanding the Indian people, the nation and its heritage. As such, he presented a scheme of education known as ‘Basic Education’ which was skill-centred, value based and mass-oriented. It was the first model of nationalisation of education in India. The scheme focussed on gaining knowledge through activity and practical experience. This scheme envisages a close integration between the schools and the community so as to make child more social minded and co-operative. If we consider the present education system, or at utmost the need of the hour is to reorient education to channelize the man-power in the right direction. T

Aurobindo’s Concept of Education

Relevance of Gandhi's concept of education to present times Relevance of Aurobindo's concept of education to present times Analyse Education as a Discipline Gandhi's concept of education Concept of Equality and Equity in Education   Sri Aurobindo Ghosh’s concept of education can be viewed briefly in his own words,             Education to be true must not be a machine made fabric, but a true building or living evocation of the powers of the mind and spirit of human being. Sri Aurobindo’s educational philosophy was student oriented philosophy which recommends focussing on ‘Integral Education’ emphasizing both the aspects ‘matter and spirit’. He insisted that the manifestation of Beauty, Power, Knowledge and Love must be the aim of integral education. ‘Beauty’ involves a programme of physical education to build a body that is beautiful in form, harmonious in posture and powerful in functions. ‘Power’ involves control of sensations; ‘Knowledge’ involves development of an a

Analyse Education as a Discipline

  Pramana as a valid source of knowledge Gandhiji's concept of education Different forms of Academic Discipline Discipline as a source of knowledge Concept of Privatization in Indian Education System Regarding status of Education as a discipline, we come across different views given by experts. Some consider education as multi-disciplinary in nature; whereas, others take it simply as a discipline. First let’s consider education as multi-disciplinary in nature. We find there is no specific educational technique or procedure to handle varied educational problems. For this, we have to look towards various disciplines such as Psychology, Sociology, Philosophy, History & Economics. Psychology holds an important place in determining the intelligence, emotions, behaviour etc of a child. Similarly, knowledge of Philosophy can’t be avoided when we talk about aims & objectives of education. Also different philosophical approaches help to draw implications regarding discipline and p

Gandhiji’s Concept of Education

Pramana as a valid source of Knowledge Education as a Discipline Relevance of Gandhi's concept of education to present times Aurobindo's concept of education Explain Stream of Consciousness   The concept of education according to Mahatma Gandhi is different from other philosophers. In his words, “ Literacy in itself is no education. It is neither the beginning nor the end of education. By education, I mean an all round drawing out of the best in child and man- body, mind and spirit. ” According to Gandhiji, literacy was just a means of education. He emphasized the development of head, hand and health. He stressed on the fact that true education draws out and stimulates physical, intellectual and spiritual faculties of child. That is, education has to take care of whole human personality, so that a child can grow to its highest stature and serve the society at its best. To put his ideas and principles into practice Gandhiji formulated a scheme of education known as ‘Basic Ed

Pramana as a Valid Source of Knowledge

Orthodox Schools views of Knowledge Heterodox Schools views of Knowledge Education as a Discipline Gandhiji's concept of Education  In Indian philosophy valid knowledge is called Prama and the source of valid knowledge is called Pramana. The different schools of philosophy recognise different Pramanas. The Charvaka school recognizes only one source of knowledge, i.e. perception. The Buddhist schools recognizes two sources i.e. perception and inference; whereas, the Samkhya school recognizes three sources i.e. perception, inference and vertical testimony. However, the Nyaya school recognizes four i.e. perception, inference, verbal testimony and analogy (comparison). Then, we have Prabhakara school of Mimamsa which recognizes five sources- perception added to the above four. The Bhatt school of Mimamsa adds non-apprehension to the above five. The Pouranika school recognizes inclusion and traditional hearsay along with the above mentioned six sources. However, inclusion and traditiona

Heterodox School’s Views of Knowledge

  Orthodox Schools views of Knowledge Education vs Indoctrination                                                Gandhiji's concept of Education Pramana as a valid source of knowledge The schools that did not believe in the authority, views & knowledge of the Vedas are termed as Heterodox schools. The main Heterodox schools are:- 1)       Jainism: The central tenets of Jain school of knowledge were established by Mahavira Jain. Jainism believes that consciousness is inseparable essence of every soul. It categorises knowledge into immediate (aparoksha) and mediate (paroksha) which are perpetual and inferential in nature. 2)       Buddhism : It is a non-theistic system of beliefs based on the teachings of Buddha. Buddhism admits perception and inference as the valid source of knowledge. According to them when an object is perceived or an impression is thought of, consciousness positively projects itself. That is all things are mental constructions. This indicates the quest fo

Orthodox School’s Views of Knowledge

  Discipline as source of Knowledge forms of Academic Discipline Postmodernism Heterodox schools views of Knowledge Pramana as a valid source of Knowledge Relevance of Gandhis's concept of education to present times The schools that believed in the authority, views & knowledge of the Vedas are termed as Orthodox schools. Over centuries, India’s intellectual exploration of truth has come to be represented by many systems under Orthodox schools. Of them the most famous ones are- Gautama’s Nyaya, Kannada’s Vaisesika, Kapila’s Samkhya, Patanjali’s Yoga, Jamini’s Purva Mimamsa and Badarayana’s Uttara Mimamsa or the Vedanta. 1)       The Nyaya School : It was founded by Gautama Muni. According to the school, knowledge comes from four sources-Perception (Pratyaksa), Inference (Anumana), Comparison (Upamana) and the Vedic word (sabda). Moreover, the objects of learning are self, body, sense organs, sense objects, intellect, mind and activity. That is it is in accordance with reason a

Different forms of Academic Discipline

  Discipline as a Source of Knowledge Equality and Equity in Education                  Concept of Privatization in Indian Education System Education vs Learning Education as a Discipline In the previous post I discussed about the discipline in detail. Here I will discuss about different forms of academic discipline:- Basic Discipline : Those disciplines which have their own logical structure of knowledge are called basic disciplines. Each discipline in this category has its own network of concept which is distinctive and unique in nature. They are studied purely for the sake of knowledge and aim towards fundamental research. There is systematic observation of phenomena solely for discovering unknown facts which may develop into theories. Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, History, and Sociology etc are basic disciplines. For e.g.:In Mathematics we solve problems, find facts and answer questions; that do not depend on the world around us but on the rules of Mathematics itself. The rese

Explain Discipline as a Source of Knowledge

   Education vs Indoctrination                         Different forms of Academic Discipline English as a Global Language                        Education as a Discipline Heterodox Schools views of Knowledge Every day we get lot of information & knowledge from many sources like- discipline, subjects, environment etc. Though the terms appear as synonymous but the difference is startling. Information is organized data about someone or something obtained from various sources. It can be easily transferred. Whereas, knowledge is justified true belief. It is based on facts and values. One has to acquire knowledge by learning, generalization and experience. For eg: when we throw a ball upwards it always falls back to Earth. We are aware with this, that is, we have information. But when we know the reason behind ball falling back to earth and can explain this fact then this is knowledge. However, it is important to understand the process of knowledge acquisition because there are differen

Economic Influence on Equality of Educational Opportunity

Equity and Equality in Education                      Different forms of Academic Discipline Education vs Indoctrination Chief features of Metaphysical Poetry   Education directly refers to improving the economic and social status in society; therefore equality of educational opportunity means to give equal chance to every individual to get educated for the development of his capacity. Infact the Constitution of India has made provisions for equal educational opportunity to all people of the country. In other words, equality of educational opportunity means the provision of incentives to school children with special facilities and provisions in higher education so as to compensate for the social and economic handicaps faced by disadvantaged sections of society. However, the economic system of India influences the equality of educational opportunity. We all know that India is a developing country as such half of its population lies below poverty line which has to elevate. The factors

Concept of Equality and Equity in Education

Education vs Learning                           Discipline as a Source of Knowledge Education vs Indoctrination Economic influence on Equality of Educational Opportunity In simple words, concept of Equality is value; whereas, Equity refers to the strategies adopted to realize the value of equality. Taking the dictionary definition, “Equality is the state or quality of being equal; correspondence in quantity, degree, value, rank or ability.                                And, “Equity is the quality of being fair or impartial.” Now, relating this to education, we find- Equality is when all children are treated in the same way without giving any importance to their need and requirements. No one is discriminated on the basis of race, caste, sex, disability, religion etc. All students are given the same resources. In an equitable system, resources are given to the students based on their individual needs. For eg: In a particular class, test is taken and result is also declared where