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Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Various Means of Curriculum Transaction in Classroom

To Ensure Effectiveness of Curriculum Transaction in Classroom

Education as a Discipline

Education vs Indoctrination

Census Survey, Descriptive Research


In education, curriculum means a pre-planned structure for learning in classroom which contains assumptions about the purpose of education in our society. Etymologically, the word ‘Curriculum’ comes from Latin which means ‘a racecourse’. Therefore, curriculum is any path or course of study to be undertaken by an educational institution. Regarding definition, we find several definitions have been proposed by curriculum specialists.

According to objectivists’ perspective, curriculum comprises relatively fixed and pre-determined knowledge that need to be imparted to the learners in educational institution. On the contrary, constructivists hold the view that curriculum is a set of learning events and activities through which students and teachers jointly negotiate content and meaning.

However, Curriculum either considered of objectivist perspective or of the constructivist perspective is a tool and it has to be transacted or implemented for learning to take place. Thus, Curriculum transaction is the effective and desired implementation of the curriculum contents on the basis of aims and objectives listed in the curriculum. Curriculum transaction in classroom refers to a process wherein teacher plans organization of learning experiences and implements the plan in the classroom with the help of appropriate methods and media in order to help the learners achieve relevant knowledge and develop necessary skills and attitudes. There are various means by which curriculum transaction can take place in classroom:-

1)      Verbal Exposition: The most common means of curriculum transaction in classroom is verbal exposition or teacher talk. It is only through their talk that teachers introduce the topic, put the content in the class and create interaction. It is considered important as two-third of the talk in classroom is done by teacher. However, this verbal exposition can be more effective if it is integrated with other interactive techniques like debate, group-work, seminar etc.

2)      Classroom Discussion: The classroom discussion besides being a means for curriculum transaction improves student thinking and helps them to construct their own meaning about academic contents. It also strengthens their cognitive structure. The classroom discussion is another favourite tool of teachers which helps them in accomplishing many of their instructional objectives.

3)      Questionnaire: Another means of curriculum transaction in classroom is questioning and answering. This helps for digging deep into the content, thereby taking the learners to higher levels of cognition such as analysis, synthesis, evaluation and appreciation. Seeing the accomplishments, the great educationist Socrates accepted this as the main tool for education.

    4)  Learner Participation: Learner participation in curriculum transaction is considered important as it makes learning more active and lead learners to achieve higher cognitive learning. This can be enhanced in the classroom transaction process through active learning methods, their participation in different activities, undertaking of their concerns and setting realistic and achievable goals. 

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