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Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Short Note on RASA and DHVANI


The word Rasa literally means taste, flavour, juice etc. Taking another aspect it is also used to denote the essence of poetry. It signifies the peculiar experience that poetry affords us. The Rasa School stresses this experimental or subjective side of poetic meaning. Bhattanayaka asserted that rasa affects the spectator and developed the theory further by saying that poetic language is different from ordinary language. He imposed on rasa theory a system of theology and philosophy.

Rasas (poetic emotions) are invariably pleasurable unlike some natural emotions like sorrow, fear and disgust which are painful. The nature of rasa which is the same as aesthetic experience is alaukika (not of this world) that is transcending the boundaries of worldly experience involving willing suspension of disbelief, negative capability, aesthetic distance and detachment. It is realized when an emotion is awakened in the mind in such a manner that it has none of its usual conative tendencies and is experienced in an impersonal contemplative mood.

The word Dhvani literally means sound but does not deal with the function of sound in the musical sense. Anandavardhana in his book Dhavanyaloka propounded the theory which considers the indirectly evoked meaning or suggestivity as the characteristic feature of literary utterance. This feature separates and determines the literary from other kinds of discourse. Anandavardhana maintains in his book that rasa is always suggested and that the best poetry is based on suggestion, which is the soul of poetry. This theory came to be known as Rasa Dhvani theory. Rasa can never be evoked by using words expressive of the emotional states like love, sorrow, anger, wonder etc. These emotions are realized by the evocative presentation of an idea or situation or action or characterization called dhvani.
 According to Kapoor,
            All the subsequent literary theorists in the tradition found the combination of rasa and dhvani theories both adequate and sufficient to analyse the constitution of meaning in literature.

Critics such as Bharat and Bhattnayak conclude that rasa or communicated sensibility is the deciding factor and dhvani or the richness of the undertones is the soul of poetry.


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