Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Colonialism in English Literature

 Modernism              Postcolonialism           Character Sketch of Kurtz

Structuralism             Deconstruction

 Feminism and Feminist Theory   

Colonialism in English Literature is not as widespread as Postcolonialism. But, it is a fact that the latter is rooted in Colonialism. The above heading means a work written during a period of time when one country was actively participating colonizing, exploiting and exhibiting power over people of another geographical area.

     The colonization of a country was followed by the colonization of the subject population, and this invariably colonises the culture also. The impact of colonization on culture was thus, institutionalized and was the most visible aspect of the harmony of British. While the replacements like food habits, gestures games etc were taking place, the gradual spread of English education brought forth a group of writers who drank deep at the fountain of European learning. These writers chose the English language to communicate with the outside world. They wanted to bring forth the sufferings and the plight of their countrymen. Also, these writers wanted to uplift the morals and attitude of the people so that they can compete with the rest of the world. As such, instead of going politically they chose their pen and paper to reach to masses. This took place infact in all colonized countries.

    Looking into the history of India, in the 17th century The East India Company effectively established its connection with India, whose original aim was primarily commerce and not conquest. However, it soon discovered its manifest destiny of filling the vacuum created in the 18th century India by the gradual disintegration of the Mughal Empire. And after the battle of Plassey in 1757, the company virtually became the master of Bengal and decided to rule. Consequently, as stated in the above stanza, slowly and gradually there was rise of Indian English Literature, which came to be divided into three categories- Anglo-Indian Literature, Indo-English Literature and Indo-Anglian Literature.

    There are many writers whose work can be described as distinctly colonial exhibiting social hierarchies of culture and technology, racisim, exploitation, plight of those colonized etc.

Mulk Raj Anand vehemently condemns the insensibility, self-centredness and the lack of sympathy and understanding in the colonizer and the upper strata of society for the poor and the exploited. He never hesitated to show a dirty and filthy image of the same. His all works voice social protest. Untouchable narrates a day in the life of Bakha, an outcast who suffers a number of humiliations.

The influence of Indian Nationalist Movement and Gandhiji on Raja Rao, one of the prolific writers of his time is evident in his works. Kanthapura is a brilliant attempt to probe the depths to which the nationalist urge penetrated showing, how even in the remote village the new upsurge fused completely with traditional religious faith, thus rediscovering the Indian soul.

A Passage in India is considered as E.M.Forster’s major work. The novel can be read as a valuable critique of British rule in India, a profound statement about personal relationships and a comment upon political, ethical and metaphysical issues.

Joseph Conrad wrote Heart of Darkness as his own experience of life, particularly experience gained during his visit to Congo in 1890. It is through fictitious character Marlow, he speaks to readers. It may therefore be said that Marlow is another self of Conrad through which he examines the savage exploitation of Congo natives.

Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye constructs identity and subjectivity of African –American women out of the spectacular American psychological system into a racial authenticity. The novel makes it obvious that the cultural standards of beauty and their association with racism affect one’s perspective of life.

Rudyard Kipling explored the shallow lives of British in India and reflected them in his works. It was only after leaving India Kipling was able to write Kim which undoubtedly became his best work of colonial fiction.

Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart creates the Nigerian literary renaissance specifically addressing the problems and effects of imperialism of the Igbo tribes.



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