Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Pramana as a Valid Source of Knowledge

Orthodox Schools views of Knowledge

Heterodox Schools views of Knowledge

Education as a Discipline

Gandhiji's concept of Education

 In Indian philosophy valid knowledge is called Prama and the source of valid knowledge is called Pramana. The different schools of philosophy recognise different Pramanas. The Charvaka school recognizes only one source of knowledge, i.e. perception. The Buddhist schools recognizes two sources i.e. perception and inference; whereas, the Samkhya school recognizes three sources i.e. perception, inference and vertical testimony. However, the Nyaya school recognizes four i.e. perception, inference, verbal testimony and analogy (comparison). Then, we have Prabhakara school of Mimamsa which recognizes five sources- perception added to the above four. The Bhatt school of Mimamsa adds non-apprehension to the above five. The Pouranika school recognizes inclusion and traditional hearsay along with the above mentioned six sources. However, inclusion and traditional hearsay are discarded by the leading exponents of Indian philosophy.

1)      Perception (Pratyaksa): According to Gautam Muni, Perception is valid form of knowledge which arises by contact of sense organs with an object. However, according to modern school of Nyaya, perception is characterized by immediacy. It is direct and not derived through medium of some other knowledge. For eg: In case of a researcher, perceptions are important to collect and verify the authority of acquired information.

2)      Inference (Anumana): Inference is a specific form of knowledge which follows perception, i.e., the process of using observation and background knowledge to determine a conclusion that makes sense. For eg: A small child looks at an apple and gets the knowledge of appearance of apple. Next time, whenever, he sees any red-coloured round shaped fruit, his previous knowledge directs him to infer that as an apple.

3)      Verbal testimony (Sabda): It is the source where knowledge is derived from words or sentences. The process involves first perception of words, then understanding the meaning of words. The knowledge of words leads to knowledge of objects through the function of recalling the meaning of words. Eg: Vedas are considered to be the most authentic source of knowledge by Indian philosophers.

4)      Analogy (Upamana): It is that valid source of knowledge which is acquired by the perception of similarity between two different objects. It is based on comparison. Such knowledge is acquired when there is prior familiarity with a particular thing which lets the individual compare both the things with known familiarity. For eg: We tell an urban dweller that ‘naga sadhu’ looks like a ‘sadhu’. Later when he encounters the same in the ‘Kumbha mela’ he quickly recognizes that as ‘naga sadhu’. Here, his knowledge is the outcome of conjunction with the knowledge of sadhu.

5)      Presumption ( Arthapatti): Presumption is the knowledge gained through seeing the relation between the cause and effect. Here, we proceed from knowledge of something to be explained to the knowledge of that which explains it. That is, presumption is the knowledge of inner contradiction and the result is the reconciliation of the contradiction. For eg: If a small child does not sleep at night and still is healthy, we presume that the child must be sleeping during the daytime.

6)      Non-apprehension (Anupalabdhi): Non-apprehension is the representative knowledge of negative facts. That is, it is based on the apprehension of non-existent thing based on non-perception. For eg: The person had cardiac arrest due to fear and anxiety.

Hence, the above discussion clarifies that Pramana is a valid source of knowledge.


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