Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Orthodox School’s Views of Knowledge

 Discipline as source of Knowledge

forms of Academic Discipline


Heterodox schools views of Knowledge

Pramana as a valid source of Knowledge

Relevance of Gandhis's concept of education to present times

The schools that believed in the authority, views & knowledge of the Vedas are termed as Orthodox schools. Over centuries, India’s intellectual exploration of truth has come to be represented by many systems under Orthodox schools. Of them the most famous ones are- Gautama’s Nyaya, Kannada’s Vaisesika, Kapila’s Samkhya, Patanjali’s Yoga, Jamini’s Purva Mimamsa and Badarayana’s Uttara Mimamsa or the Vedanta.

1)      The Nyaya School: It was founded by Gautama Muni. According to the school, knowledge comes from four sources-Perception (Pratyaksa), Inference (Anumana), Comparison (Upamana) and the Vedic word (sabda). Moreover, the objects of learning are self, body, sense organs, sense objects, intellect, mind and activity. That is it is in accordance with reason and experience.

2)      The Vaisesika: The Vaisesika sutra by Kannada emphasizes the significance of individuals, sharing the same sources of knowledge with Nyaya School. It recognizes three objects of experience as having real objective existence namely substance quality & activity and three products of intellectual discrimination- generality, particularity and combination.

3)      Samkhya: Propounded by Kapila, the Samkhya school has two entitles-Purush (spirit) and Prakriti (nature), while Purush cannot be changed Prakriti brings changes. It emphasizes the attainment of knowledge of self by means of concentration and meditation.

4)      Yoga: It was founded by Patanjali. It is a method of physical and mental discipline. The yoga presents a practical path for the realization of the self.

5)      Purva Mimamsa: The Purva Mimamsa school by Jamini upholds a theory that all knowledge is valid by itself. It was not validated by any other knowledge. Moreover, validity of knowledge arises from the essential nature of the causes of knowledge. It is not due to any extraneous conditions. Further, it advocates the self-validity of knowledge both in respect of its origin and ascertainment.

6)      Uttara Mimamsa (Vedanta): The Vedanta school by Badarayana emphasizes that knowledge comes from scriptures (sruti) and other authorities (smriti); though Sruti as revelation is identified with perception and Smriti as interpretation with inference. Scriptures refers to Vedas and Smriti to the Bhagavad Gita, Mahabharata and Laws of Manu.

Therefore, The Nyaya School recognized perception, inference, comparison and Vedic word, while Vaisesika do recognized the same. The Samkhya and Yoga school also believed in perception and inference with scriptures testimony. However, the Mimamsa school added two more pramanas to the above mentioned ones namely, presumption and non-perception.


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