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Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Heterodox School’s Views of Knowledge

 Orthodox Schools views of Knowledge

Education vs Indoctrination                                              Gandhiji's concept of Education

Pramana as a valid source of knowledge

The schools that did not believe in the authority, views & knowledge of the Vedas are termed as Heterodox schools. The main Heterodox schools are:-

1)      Jainism: The central tenets of Jain school of knowledge were established by Mahavira Jain. Jainism believes that consciousness is inseparable essence of every soul. It categorises knowledge into immediate (aparoksha) and mediate (paroksha) which are perpetual and inferential in nature.

2)      Buddhism: It is a non-theistic system of beliefs based on the teachings of Buddha. Buddhism admits perception and inference as the valid source of knowledge. According to them when an object is perceived or an impression is thought of, consciousness positively projects itself. That is all things are mental constructions. This indicates the quest for inward concentration.

3)      Charvaka: The Charvaka school which is materialistic recognizes only perception as the valid source of knowledge and rejects validity of inference. According to them perception revealed only the material world made of four elements- air, fire, water and earth. They only focussed to enjoy pleasure and avoid pain.

Though the heterodox schools also believed in perception and inference as the Orthodox schools; the difference lies in the relationship between the two terms. While the former believes in casual relationship between the two, the Orthodox states a concomitant relation between perception and inference. For eg: The Orthodox school will interpret, “When there is rain, there is cloud”. And, the heterodox will say,” There is rain because there is cloud”.

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