Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Explain Stream of Consciousness

 Education vs Indoctrination

Colonialism in English Literature

In his research work The Principles of Psychology (1890), William James coined a phrase Stream of consciousness to describe the flow of thoughts of the waking mind. According to him, the intervention of time cannot break the continuity of consciousness. It flows like a stream of river.

The writers adopting this technique relate all mental experience of their characters be they pleasant or unpleasant, trivial or significance without any restrain. In order to depict the fleeting thoughts of the mind the novelists commonly uses the narrative techniques of ‘interior monologue’, where the individual thought processes of a character associated to his/her actions are portrayed in the form of a monologue that addresses the character itself. As such, it is different from the ‘dramatic monologue’ where the speaker addresses the audience. Other devices used by the novelist are epiphanies, dreams, free association of ideas, symbolism, slips of tongue etc.

According to this theory time itself is visualised as a continuous stream. The mind does not follow the artificial division of past, present and future because the present is at once the prolongation of the past and seed of the future. There is the element of succession in time. This conception of time has been portrayed in the novels of Dorothy Richardson, Virginia Woolf and James Joyce. They move freely backward and forward in time.

The most famous example of this technique is James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922). The novel is a complex evocation of the inner states of characters Leopold, Molly Bloom and Stephen. Virginia Woolf’s The Waves (1931) presents the fleeting emotions and thoughts of six characters recounting their lives from childhood to old age. The stream of consciousness style of writing is marked by the sudden rise of thoughts, lack of punctuation (ungrammatical construction) and free association of ideas, images and words. The kind of style is generally associated with the modern novelist and short-story writers of the twentieth century.

Jungian psychology has emphasised the significance of myth and archetypal symbols which represent the spiritual crises through which humanity has passed in its progress from primitive to the civilized state. The stream of consciousness technique novels respond to the theory of Jung and have adopted the mythical method which combines with the adherence of the complex musical forms to shape the circular structure of many works of fiction.

The novelists adopting this technique also respond to Adler’s idea of inferiority and physical compensation. In Joyce’s Ulysses, Leopald’s hallucinations and day-dreams point towards his inferiority complex. His fantasy runs right and he thinks himself to be a ‘King’ and a ‘Messiah’ in his day dreams.


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