Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Socialization

G.H.Mead's Theory of Socialization

Effectiveness of Curriculum Transaction

Study Survey, Descriptive Reserach

Census Survey

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) developed the theory of socialization in the early 20th cen. Since personality is the outcome of socialization, Freud’s theory of socialization associate, structure and development of personality with human psychological needs.

According to Freud, the human mind has three main regions- Consciousness, Pre-consciousness and Unconsciousness. The conscious region of mind relates the individual with present events and activities in life. Preconscious region stores up memories called as mind which can easily be recalled. For eg: If we say office, home, school etc we call an incident or series of incidents related to that. The unconscious region is the store house of all repressed desires and bitter experiences which come to the level of conscious either in disguised form or in psychoanalysis. Moreover, unconscious is the predominant content of mind that directs our behaviour. In other words, our personality is the outcome of our unconscious mind.

Next, Freud shifts his emphasis from regions of mind to the structure and function of personality which consists of three parts- id, ego and superego. The id is the selfish part of personality that knows nothing about rules, regulations, values and moralities. It consists of biological instincts. For eg: The need for food and demand for immediate gratification in infants.

The ego is the acting individual. It serves as the mediator between desires and actions and acts according to reality. For eg: The infants when grow and get older they learn that not all their needs can be immediately satisfied and thus develops the ego or the rational part of personality.

The superego concerns itself with what is ideal. Its main function is to decide whether the chosen object of satisfaction of needs is right or wrong from the point of view of moral principles of society. As children get older, they internalize society’s norms and values and thus, begin to develop their superego.

If ego becomes weak and id becomes stronger, the individual is more at risk of developing antisocial behaviours. And, if superego starts dominating ego it results in suppression leading to neurosis. Therefore, according to Freud a proper balance is to be maintained among id, ego and superego for healthy and socially useful personality.


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