Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

G.H.Mead’s Theory of Socialization

 Sigmund freud's Theory of Socialization

Effectiveness of Curriculum Transaction

Census Survey, Descriptive Research

George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) an eminent figure in the early 20th century developed a theory of social behaviourism (socialization) to explain how social experience develops an individual’s personality. One of his most influential theories was emergence of mind and self from the communication process among individuals in society.

According to Mead, mind is not a substance located in some transcendent realm, nor it is merely a series of events that takes place within human. Rather, emergence of mind is contingent upon the interaction between the individual and the society by symbols or language. That is, mind arises out of social act of communication.

Further, Mead emphasises the development of self, the part of an individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image. He clarified three stages in the development of self-  play, game and generalized other.

The first stage Mead emphasised was child’s play. When small children play they take the role of others. For eg: father, mother etc. This means they pretend to be other people in their play and in doing so learn the actions and behaviour the people expect from them. In other words, they internalize the expectations other people have of them.

Next, when the child starts going to school the ‘game’ stage begins. Now the child starts playing games in teams with many children. The practice of role-taking helps children to take role of several others. In doing so, they learn to anticipate the actions of other members of their team. That is, the ‘game’ stage shows the capacity to derive a multiple self-images and to co-operate with a group of individuals engaged in some co-ordinate activity. In the process, the child from ’I’ convert to ‘Me’ which shows socialization.

In the next stage, the child grows much older; he can take on the role of ‘generalized other’ and learn society’s expectations, beliefs, values and norms as a whole. Thus, it is the ever increasing capacity to take roles with an over-expanding body of others that marks the stages of development of the self. The development of these stages according to Mead is important not only for the individual but also for the society as it enhances individual’s contribution to society.




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