Comparative Survey, Descriptive Research

  Comparative survey research is a type of descriptive survey where it aims to compare the status of two or more variable, institutions, strategies etc. This technique often uses multiple disciplines in one study.This does not only compare different groups but also same group over time.Few points are to be kept in mind before starting the comparative survey. ·        Comparison Points -The research should be very clear regarding the points to be compared. This can also be identified through review of literature and experience of experts. ·        Assumption of Similarities -  One has to be clear about the similarities the two variable hold. If the researcher do not find this there is no point of comparison. Criteria of Comparison - The researcher has to identify the criteria of comparison keeping in mind the fairness and objectivity. Appropriate tools has to be identified for measurement of criterion variables. Comparative survey research is carried on when the researcher cannot

Growth and Status of English Language in India

Overview of history of English Language

Critical analysis of A Passage to India

Character sketch of Kurtz of Heart of Darkness

Eliza Doolittle

Doctor Faustus

English as a Global Language

 The growth and status of English language in India is directly correlated with the growth of imperialism in the country. It is well known to everyone the arrival of East India Company in India and how the trade changed to conquest. The language of trade essentially meant the influx of certain Indian words into the English vocabulary and vice-versa for effective communication between two trading communities. However, the language got engulfed in different work- of spreading missionary work and proselytization.

It was only by the Charter Act of 1813, the Company became responsible for the education of the Indians. The early attempts of teaching English language were overshadowed by political compulsions. Macaulay’s Minutes of 1835 clearly supported the western education in India through the medium of English. Despite protests from the Orientalists William Bentinck accepted this proposal and directed funds for imparting knowledge of English literature and Science in English language. Later many more minutes, despatches and commissions like- Lord Auckland’s Minutes of 1839, Wood’s Despatch of 1854 and Hunter Commission of 1882 suggested various changes to make English language a permanent feature of instruction in Indian education.

Slowly and gradually colleges and universities were established. The importance of English language was rising with the increase of educational institutions. By the early twentieth century English language was formally established as the official language of India. As the nationalist movement gained strength, an anti-English feeling emerged. Surprisingly, the movement was divided over the question of English language in the country. Though regional languages dominated English language in Secondary schools; the latter stood firm in its position in Universities.

With the British leaving India in 1947, the English language passed through the same stages of development in the country as in colonised days. The Government of India Act 1935 was replaced by the Constitution of India 1950. Now, the problem was to choose a national language that would serve as a symbol of national integration, yet retain English language for various needs. This language issue gave rise to diverse controversies. The Indian Constitution of 1950 hence stipulated Hindi in the Devnagri script as the national and official language; whereas English was to be a transitional language until 1965.

In 1956 the Academy of Tamil Culture objected Hindi as the official language on the ground that it is unfamiliar language to the people of Southern region of India.  The All India Language Conference demanded the continuance of English without any time frame in 1958. The agitations against Hindi language continued through 1960s. Owing to such disturbances, the English language came to be recognized constitutionally as the Associate National Official Language and as inter-regional; link language. Since then, the importance of English continued to rise unhindered and is still progressing forth.

Today, English has a powerful impact on Indians. It is an essential component of formal education and preferred medium of learning in professional and technical education. English language is the primary requirement in administration, judiciary and for job opportunities in multinational companies. It continues to be the language of commerce, industry and banking sector. Socially, also it is recognized and upheld as a language of power and prestige. Curiosity to express themselves in an efficient way and get connected with the outside world gave rise to special field in literature known as Indian English Literature. Besides, the language also became a medium to popularise Indian art culture throughout the world.

In the present day, English language occupies a relatively strong position among the languages spoken read and written in India. However, it has gone through a long and difficult journey since the time it was introduced. The language is completely decolonised and is given a national colour of Indianism. The distinct socio-cultural parameters with which English has been used in India like- pronunciation, tone, structure, accent etc, therefore, has given rise to a distinct variety called Indian English which is different from those countries where it is the first language. Moreover, it is the Code-Mixing with English and the Code-Switching that is gaining new heights by cutting language boundaries. This is being widely accepted and is helping more to nativise the English language.


Popular posts from this blog

Justify the Title ‘Heart of Darkness’ by Joseph Conrad

Character Sketch of KURTZ in Heart Of Darkness

Bring out the Autobiographical Elements in Sons and Lovers

Short Note on RASA and DHVANI

Justification of the Title LOOK BACK IN ANGER